That Hamilton Woman (1941)




Director:    Alexander Korda.

Starring:     Vivien Leigh (Emma, Lady Hamilton),  Laurence Olivier (Lord Horatio Nelson),  Alan Mowbray (Sir William Hamilton),  Sara Allgood (Mrs. Cadogan-Lyon),  Gladys Cooper (Lady Frances Nelson),  Henry Wilcoxon (Captain Hardy),  Heather Angel ( a streetgirl),  Halliwell Hobbes (Rev. Nelson),  Gilbert Emery (Lord Spencer),  Miles Mander (Lord Keith),  Ronald Sinclair (Josiah),  Luis Alberni (King of Naples),  Norma Drury Boleslavsky (Queen of Naples),  Olaf Hytten (Gavin),  Juliette Compton (Lady Spencer),  Guy Kingsford (Captain Troubridge). 

With Vivien Leigh as Lady Hamilton and Sir Laurence Olivier as Lord Admiral Nelson, how could it not be Winston Churchill's favorite movie?  


Spoiler Warning:  below is a summary of the entire movie. 

Calais, France.  A somewhat tacky looking woman is down by the docks.  Two policemen watch her as she goes into a liquor store.  She steals a bottle.  The police are just outside watching her. She runs but falls and the bottle breaks.  The police grab her.  She asks the police if they know who she is.  They just laugh at her.  She slaps one of the officers in the face. 

The lady is now in jail.  Some of the ladies of the evening were also rounded up.  One of the women takes an interest in the woman seemingly overdressed.  The prostitute's name is Mary Smith, an English woman.  She asks the woman what her name is.  It's Emma.  Emma what?  Emma, Lady Hamilton.  Mary laughs and says that's what she should have expected after being so nosy.  She says if the woman doesn't want to tell her her real name that's alright with her.  Mary remembers her mother telling her that Lady Hamilton was the most beautiful woman in the world.  Emma starts thinking about her past.  Mary encourages her to tell the story, even if it's not true. 

Flashback.  She was 18 years of age.  She was beautiful then.  She takes a trip to Naples to see His Excellency the British Ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, at his palace. 

A shipment arrives for His Excellency.   Among the art is a painting of the beautiful Emma.  

Emma and her mother arrive at the palace.  Emma is impressed.  Sir William greets Emma and her mother warmly.  He says he had no idea she would really come.  He introduces them to his friend the French Ambassador.  Emma tells Sir William that his nephew Charles Greville sends him a kiss (she kisses him).  He will come in October to escort them home.  The French Ambassador is impressed also and asks where did William find her.  He says Charles Greville found her.  She was with Sir Harry at Featherstone Castle for a whole hunting season.  She would do a seven veil dance and as the last veil fell the police closed down the place.  Sir William will dine with Emma tonight, alone.       

In private Emma let's her hair down.  She congratulates herself on her performance.  Her plan is to marry the nephew Charlie.  And part of that plan is to have Sir William eating out of her hand before Charlie arrives in a month's time.  (The two women marvel at the smoking Mt. Vesuvius in the background.)

At dinner Emma talks enthusiastically about Charlie.  Sir William feels it his duty to be frank with her.  He sends the servants out of the room.  Sir William tells her frankly that Charles Greville will never come to Naples.  She says he will come.  He asked her to marry him.  Sir William says he will have to destroy those "sweet dreams" of hers.  His nephew never had any intention of marrying her.  Emma is totally shocked and has a hard time believing it.  Charles knew about her past, knew about the other men in her life.  He changed her not only on the outside but inside too.  Now she is a good woman.  So why should Charles do this to her?  Because, says Sir William, he was heavily in debt.  And Sir William purchased his art work so that his nephew could pay his debts.  Emma now understands.  And among the art works was a certain painting of Emma Hart. 

Emma cries.  But she is also furious at Charles and at Sir William for using her.  She says she will not stay here.  Sir William tells her to forget about her past and forget about Charles.  He can offer her a new, exciting life.  She will be a success in Naples.  And she will heal.  He describes a wonderful life filled with prominent men and women.  She'll have everything in life she could possibly dream of.  Back with her mother, Emma cries.

Emma as narrator says that she did heal quickly.  She learned French, Italian and music.  Now she had more than she ever dreamed of.  And she became his wife, Emma, Lady Hamilton.  One morning Emma hears cannon fire coming from a battleship.  Horatio Nelson, the captain, is rowed ashore.  Emma receives a letter from Charles Greville.  She has the letter sent back without being opened. 

Emma is working on the seating arrangements for a party and she barges into her husband's office virtually ignoring the fact that he has a guest.  Sir William tells his wife that they will not be seeing the French Ambassador for quite some time.  Captain Nelson tells her:  "We are at war with France."  So Emma invites him to the party as a replacement for the French Ambassador.  But Nelson is sailing this very night.  Oh, says Emma.  She sits down and tells the men to proceed.  Nelson is a bit thrown off by her presence.  So Emma politely leaves. 

Lord Hood has advised Nelson to tell Sir William they have captured Tumba but need 10,000 troops to hold it.  He wants the troops to come from Naples and come immediately.  But Sir William says that it will take some days to get even an audience with the King of Naples. 

Nelson looks at the portraits of Emma.  This gives an opening to Emma to talk with the handsome man.  She tells Nelson that she can help him get his troops quickly.  Nelson is skeptical, but Emma tells him she will be seeing the Queen in the next ten minutes.  And the real King of Naples, she says, is the Queen. 

Emma is admitted and she brings along her Captain.  The place is very noisy caused by the chatter of the royal couple's fifteen children.  The Queen is very happy to see her friend.  Nelson in soon introduced to the Queen and then the King. 

Emma and Nelson return to see Sir William, who tells them that he will have his application sent to the court within a half an hour.   Emma opens a document and says:  "We asked for 20,000 and we got 10,000."  Sir William is shocked.  Nelson says he is very grateful to his wife.  Emma says that now that she has saved the Captain at least a week of time, he can go to the party.  She says she will dance the Dance of the Nymphs at the party.  She goes on and on, but is stopped by a message Nelson receives.  He has to leave tonight.  Nelson introduces his step-son, a midshipman, to Lady Hamilton.  She is surprised that he is married. 

Emma is very interested in Captain Nelson.  She says to her husband that he was so serious that it suddenly made her feel foolish talking on and on about the party.  And she knows nothing of war.  She tells her husband that he must teach her these things about war and such. 

Emma as narrator says then came five years of war.  England fought alone with no allies.  The whole of Europe was in deadly fear of Napoleon Bonaparte.  Only Nelson and a few ships stood in the way of Napoleon's complete victory.  Nelson works his way up to rear-admiral and is now Sir Horatio Nelson. 

An officer comes to Nelson to complain about the inactivity of Sir William in getting them the supplies they desperately need.  The situation has changed.  Now everyone is so afraid of Napoleon.  And Naples is no exception.  Their port is now officially neutral.   Suddenly the mood changes with the arrival of Lady Hamilton.  Emma is shocked by Nelson's changed appearance.  He is missing a right arm and his right eye is also very damaged.  Nelson goes on and on about the supplies they need, while Emma just stares at him.  He finally asks her what's wrong and suddenly realizes why she is so shocked.  He puts a hat on and cocks it to the right to cover his bad eye.  He is still very excited about the prospect of catching the French fleet at Egypt and smashing it. 

Emma comes to the rescue again.  She got permission from the Queen of Naples so that the British fleet can water at any port in the kingdom.  She hands the document to Nelson and he kisses it.  He looks out to sea and says:  "Look out, Bonaparte.  By gad we will lick you now."   The ship is leaving, so Nelson thanks Emma once again. 

Narrator Emma says he met his great opponents and defeated them at the Battle of the Nile.  And when the victory was achieved, he did not go back to England or his wife.  He came back to see her, Emma.  A big reception is held for Nelson with lots of fireworks.  Emma comes running into the court saying that they must fetch a doctor.  Nelson appears and says he does not need a doctor.  But you staggered and fell, says Emma.  He won't hear of it.  He rushes to the King of Naples to tell him that the French fleet may be defeated, but the French army is only two days march from Naples.  He is inappropriately vociferous about the matter.  The King asks Sir William why the man is so overwrought. 

Suddenly he turns to Lady Hamilton to speak with her.  She apologizes for calling the doctor, but she thought he was ill.  Nelson promptly falls to the floor.  Nine days later he awakens.  Emma has been nursing him for nine days.  He slept in her own bed for all those days.  Nelson tells Emma that out of everyone she was the only one who knew he was ill.  Emma's mother comes in and Nelson meets her.  He asks her if it would be alright to call her daughter Emma. 

Emma tells Nelson that the King of England has raised him to the peerage and now he is Lord Nelson.  The King of Naples has given him the Dukedom of Bronte so he is now Duke and a baron.  And the whole of Europe is singing his praises over the victory at the Battle of the Nile.  He tells Emma that he will tell the whole world that none of it would have been possible without her.  Emma says he just needs to get better for the whole world needs him and she needs more than anyone.  He then asks Emma to write a letter for him to Lady Nelson in Norfolk, England.  He has not seen her in seven years.  He uses the letter as a way to flatter and praise Lady Hamilton.  This deeply moves Lady Hamilton herself. 

Nelson goes to the opera in honor of himself with the King and Queen of Naples and Lady Hamilton.  After the performance Emma takes Nelson to a local tavern.  Nelson uses the opportunity to tell Emma that he loves her.  She tries to kiss him but he holds back.  They are interrupted by sailors from the British fleet.  Among them is Nelson's step-son.  He is not happy with Nelson's being seen all over with Lady Hamilton.  He makes fun of his step-father to the other soldiers.  He then offers a toast to Sir William Hamilton.  Nelson comes to the table and they all jump to attention.  He says that's an excellent toast and he will toast with them.  He pours himself a drink and says:  "To Sir William Hamilton!"   He and Emma leave.  Nelson apologizes to her for the scene.  She says she has already forgiven the sailors. 

The step-son, Josiah, writes a letter to his mother complaining about "that Hamilton woman".  She never leaves Nelson alone for a minute.  Tomorrow she is giving him a great ball in his honor.

After the ball Emma asks her husband for confirmation that she was stupendous and that the ball was the greatest ever seen in Naples.  He agrees, but he has to break her bubble a bit.  Lord Nelson is on his way to Malta.  She accuses her husband of trying to prevent her from saying goodbye to Nelson.  She lets her resentments toward Sir William flow out of her and she gives him a good tongue-lashing.  He says what a pity she will not see Nelson again.  And he, William, will sleep beautifully tonight. 

Emma asks for her darling to come back to her, come back.  And at that very moment her mother tells her that Nelson waits for her on the balcony.  She rushes out to the balcony.  They kiss passionately.  She asks him to come back to her.  He wonders if he should.  He knows he must not come back, but nothing can keep him from her.  A boat arrives to take him to the ship. 

On board Nelson discusses their plans with his officers.  They are to take the island of Malta.  A messenger comes in to say that they just picked up a fishing boat with refugees from Naples.  A revolution has broken out.  The King and Queen are locked up in the palace.  There is a lot of shooting, looting and murder in Naples.  The officers want to go straight back to the matter of Malta, but Nelson's mind is elsewhere.  He splits the fleet.  Some will blockade Malta, while others will go to Messina.  He is going to Naples.  The officers are a bit shocked. 

One of the officers stays behind and implores Nelson to follow their orders faithfully.  Nelson is not moved.  The officer tells him that back in London they will say that Lord Nelson did this because of  . . .  Lord Nelson cuts the officer off.  He tells him to watch what he says.  And he doesn't care what anybody says.  It's back to Naples. 

The Admiralty meets.  One matter they discuss is the behavior of Lord Nelson.  The complainant says that Nelson went back to Naples and rescued a party and then sailed to Paloma.  The man, quite frankly, does not act like a British admiral, says the fellow.  In his defense, says the chairman, Lord Spencer, he did save the royal couple from certain death at the hands of the mob.  And he saved the British ambassador and his wife.  Another man says:  "What's the point of saving the husband?"  Most of the men laugh at this.  The chairman suggests that they bring Nelson back at once so he can say goodbye to his charming romance. 

Emma and Nelson play cards for money at a party.  They win.  Emma gathers up her winnings and goes out on the porch.  Her husband says that the Admiralty has ordered Nelson back to London at once.  If he ignores this final order, Nelson could be dismissed from the navy.  It will mean the end of his career.  His future lies is her hands.  Emma says if he must go, he must go.  When will they leave for England?  Her husband says they are not leaving.  Nelson's instructions were to return "alone".   

Sir William says that the Turkish envoy has invited her to winter in Cairo.  She should tell Nelson that she loves Egypt and she has accepted the invitation.  Her husband tells her that he knows that this duty is painful for her.  She thanks him and he leaves.  She looks out over the water.  When Nelson comes to her she simply tells him the whole truth.  Nelson admits that he must go back this time.  Emma doesn't like it but agrees that he needs to go back and she needs to go to Cairo.  She says:  "Oh, darling, why do we always meet just to say goodbye?"  It is New Year's Eve 1799.  Happy New Year, 1800.  Nelson says it was quite a century:  Marlborough rode to war; Washington  crossed the Delaware; Louie the XVI and Marie Antoinette;  the last of the Stuarts; Peter the Great; Voltaire; Clive od India; Bonaparte.  They kiss.  Nelson can't be without her.  He says they will go back to England together.  Emma says:  "I would have died if you left me here."

Hotel Nerot, London, 6 Dover Street.  Lady Nelson arrives.  Lord Nelson, the father of Horatio, is with her.  In her room she is visited by Lord Spencer of the Admiralty.  He tells her that Lord Nelson has already arrived.  He arrived at Yarmouth yesterday.  He is traveling with a lady.  Lady Nelson says now she knows why the Admiralty did not give an official reception for Nelson.  And she fully agrees.  Lord Spencer says her husband is not being dismissed from the navy.  He is being given an "extended leave for the benefit of his health".   Before he leaves, Lord Spencer suggests Lady Nelson be a bit more tolerant toward her husband.   

Everything was supposed to be on the down low, but the public found out and they rally around the hotel making a lot of noise and commotion.  Church bells ring.  Lord Hamilton arrives.  He urges subtly that Lady Nelson accept the things that are inevitable.  Nelson arrives.  He goes to his wife.  They kiss politely.  Lady Hamilton arrives with flowers and great enthusiasm.  She throws open the doors to the porch.  Nelson goes out to greet the people.  The two women stare at each other.  Emma introduces herself.  Lady Nelson bows slightly. 

The Nelsons and the Hamiltons have dinner together.  Emma's mother reveals some secrets that perhaps she shouldn't have.  The men stay at the table and Emma and Lady Nelson go into another room.  Lady Hamilton tells Emma that they will be going back to Norfolk.  Her husband will take a seat in the House of Lords.  She then says good night to Lady Hamilton.  Emma starts to cry.  Nelson grabs her.  She says they were living in a dream world.  They are trapped and there is no way out.  Nelson says he will speak to his wife.  And she must talk to William.  There is no other way than divorce.  Emma says because he is such a public hero, he cannot divorce.  What they are doing is so dreadfully wrong that it cannot bring happiness.  But Emma can't face the cold reality of it all.  She cries and Nelson begs her to stop.  Somebody might hear her.  Emma goes to her room.  She cries on her bed. 

Lord Nelson speaks at the House of Lords.  Emma listens from the balcony.  A woman points out "that Hamilton woman" to a friend.  And over there is his wife.  The woman wonders who he will go to first when he finishes and goes out to the vestibule.  When Nelson does go into the vestibule, he nods to Emma and goes to Lady Nelson.  Nelson is about to get into the coach, but Lady Hamilton faints.  He rushes to her side.  Lady Nelson knocks to tell the driver to go. 

When Nelson returns home, he scolds his wife for driving on, but she is definitely unapologetic about it.  She asks her husband why he is so blind.  The woman is using him for her own ambition and conceit.  Nelson tells her to be silent, but she ignores him.  She calls him a fool and a poor, silly man.  Nelson says:  "Yes, that's what I am without her."   Lady Nelson says that people make fun of her wherever she goes.  Nelson says he's sorry.  She says she will go away, but she will not give him a divorce.  His father comes in to implore his son to call her back.  He must do what is right.  Horatio says that is something he cannot do. 

1801.  Emma officially registers the birth of her child.  She gives a false name for the father. 

It's winter.  Emma visits her mother, who wants to know all about her little granddaughter. Enthusiastically, Emma tells her mother that Nelson has beaten the Danes.  Mother tells Emma that Sir William lost all his treasured art works on the ship when it went down.  Emma says that was his whole life.  William has his servant adjust an imaginary picture on the wall.  He imagines that he has his art all around him.  Mother is worried that Sir William will die leaving all his money to his son and her daughter will be left penniless.  Emma says she doesn't care.  She has all the riches she needs.  She has her child.  "That means more than all the money in the world." 

Nelson is greeted warmly at the Admiralty for his victory at Copenhagen.   They are hoping at long last they will have a peace.  Nelson warns them about Napoleon.  He just wants to gain time to replenish his fleet.  He will strike again.  He means to be master of the world and must be wiped out.  Do not ratify this peace!  After the meeting Lord Spencer tells Nelson that Lady Hamilton is going to Venice for some musical event. 

Nelson goes to see Emma's mother.  Sir William is now dead.  Nelson asks her why the sudden move from the Piccadilly to Hotel Nerot.  And there are a great number of flowers in the hotel suite.  Mother says that she couldn't stand the Piccadilly anymore after William's death.  Right now her daughter is out with a musical gentleman for a ride in the park.  Emma comes in and they kiss.  Nelson asks her to drive out with him to see their daughter.  Emma says it's impossible.  Everyone knows him.  Nelson becomes is upset.  He tells her he tried to get in contact with her three times and was told that she was out each time.  Emma says that he is jealous and she likes that. 

Emma finally reveals to Horatio that she is drowning in bills and more bills.  She has to be nice to the music man because he has promised her a contract at his opera house.  William did not leave her a farthing.  Nelson demands to know why he was not told.  She says she has never asked anyone for money and she never shall.  Mad, he promises her a home of her own and no more sorrow.  He sets her up in a nice home. 

One of Nelson's officers, Captain Hardy, pays a visit to Emma's place.  Hardy tells Emma that since Napoleon made himself Emperor of France, his next move is the invasion of England.  The peace they signed is no good.  Napoleon has made an alliance with Spain.  He is replenishing his fleet.  They will need Nelson.  But this time Emma will not help.  She has done enough, Nelson has done enough.  Get someone else to command the fight, she says.  Hardy leaves.  When Nelson comes into the house from outside, Emma tells him about Hardy's visit.  They need him.  "And there's no one else." 

Nelson has to leave Emma.  She runs into the house to retrieve an item.  Nelson uses the opportunity to leave.  Emma says:  "He'll never come back, Mother."

October 21, 1805.   Off Cape Trafalgar.  A fellow officer warns the Admiral that the French have sharpshooters.  Maybe he shouldn't wear all those decorations into battle.  Nelson dismisses the matter.  They run up the colors saying:  "England expects that every man to do his duty."  The battle begins.  The ships close in on each other.  Nelson's ship collides with a French ship.  British riflemen fire their weapons at Frenchmen aboard their vessel.  Some of the French ships catch on fire.  Nelson walks on deck.  The French sharpshooters see him.  They fire and a bullet goes through Nelson's spine.  He is taken below to the doctor.  Nelson says he has no feeling below his chest.  He also says:  "Poor Emma.  What will become of her?"  The British win the day.  Nelson asks for Hardy, but he's busy on deck fighting.  The French flagship surrenders.  A big hurrah goes up for the victory.  Hardy comes to see Nelson.  Fourteen ships are ours, sir, he says.  Not enough, says Nelson.  He wants twenty.  And he wants all his possessions and some of his hair given to Emma.  News arrives that they have taken eighteen French ships.  Nelson is pleased.  He dies.

At home Emma sews quietly.  An officer rides to her home.  It's Captain Hardy.  What is the news?  It was a great victory, the greatest we have ever known.   They destroyed the French fleet. But Hardy won't get to the point.  Nelson was brilliant.  He swung their fleet into two spearheads that broke the enemy line in three separate parts.  Then about 1:30 they were walking along the deck.  They were so confident.  Hardy breaks down crying.  Nelson lived to know he won England's greatest victory.  "His last thoughts were of you, my lady," says Hardy.  He cries again and runs out.  He quickly leaves. 

Emma slowly gets up and closes the blinds.  She collapses. 

Back to the present.  The prostitute asks:  "And then?  What happened after?"  Emma replies slowly and sadly:  "There is no then.   There is no after." 


Good movie.  It covers a lot of history and deals with the relationship between Emma,  Lady Hamilton and Horatio Nelson in great detail.  It's history with a love story.  Vivian Leigh and Laurence Olivier were simply great as Emma and Nelson, respectively.  The movie does not say much about Emma's background, but you can read that in the Historical Background below.  Quite a ride to fame and glory she took.   

Patrick Louis Cooney, Ph. D.


Historical Background:

1758 – Horatio Nelson was born in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England to the Reverend Edmund Nelson and Catherine Nelson.

1761  -- birth of Any Lyon in Cheshire, England.  She, the daughter of a blacksmith, later changed her name to Emma Hart.  She had no formal education.  In her early life she worked as a prostitute.  She worked as a striptease artist in a local tavern/brothel.  Later she would pose for the artists George Romney and Sir Joshua Reynolds.  She had many paintings done of her.  She moved to a high-class brothel and caught the eye of Sir Harry Featherstonhauh.   

1767 – at nine years of age, Horatio's mother died.

1770 – at age twelve, he enrolled in the Royal Navy.

1771 – he started his naval career aboard the Raisonnable; his maternal uncle commanded the ship. He was soon appointed a midshipman.

1776  -- at the age of 15 Emma Hart moved to a high-class brothel and caught the eye of Sir Harry Featherstonhauh.  Emma became his mistress. 

1777 – he had the rank of lieutenant; in the West Indies he fought against the Americans in the American Revolutionary War.

1779 – he commanded the 28-gun frigate Hinchinbrook, a vessel captured from the French.

1781 – he saw action against the Spanish fortress of San Juan in Nicaragua. He returned to England for more than a year, because of a health setback while on duty. Returning to duty he saw further action against the American until the end of the war, 1783.

1781  --  Emma is thought to have conceived a child by one of Sir Harry's guests, Sir Charles Francis Greville.  She became Greville's mistress.  It was he who had her change her named to Emma Hart.  And it was he who had George Romney paint her.  He used her many times as his model.  She was also known as the model of the "Goddess of Health" for James Graham, a Scottish "quack" doctor. Through the paintings she became well-known in society. 

1783  --  Greville needed to marry a rich wife and Emma presented a problem.  So he to Naples to be the mistress of his diplomat uncle, Sir William Hamilton, in return for Sir William's payment of his debts.

1784 – commanding the 28-gun Boreas, off Nevis he seized four American vessels while enforcing the Navigation Act. Nelson had to lay low because the Americans sued Nelson. Eventually, the courts cleared Nelson but the commander had to lay low for eight months. During this time he met Fanny Nesbit, a widow on Nevis.

1787 – at the end of his Caribbean tour of duty, he married Fanny Nesbit.

1789 – as it was peacetime, Nelson lived on half pay for several years.

1789 – the French Revolution. In the aftermath, Nelson was recalled to active duty.

1791 – Sir William Hamilton married his mistress, now the Lady Hamilton.

1793 – he commanded the 64-gun Agamemnon.

1793 – Nelson met Lady Hamilton through Queen Marie Caroline (wife of Ferdinand I of Naples and good friend of Lady Hamiltion).

1794 – he lost sight in his right eye when hit by debris thrown up by a cannon shot during an operation at Calvi, Corsica.

1796 – Sir John Jervis became the commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean fleet. He appointed Nelson commodore and put in command of the blockaded of the French coast. His new ship was HMS Captain.

1797 – he played the key role in the British victory at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. Nelson was knighted. He was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Blue, the ninth highest rank in the Royal Navy.

1797 – in an attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife, he was shot in the right arm and it was later amputated.

1798 – Nelson won the Battle of the Nile (a.k.a., the Battle of Abukir Bay) over the French, seriously hurting Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign. Nelson resented that he did not receive more of a reward from his country.

Returning to Naples, Lady Hamilton fainted when she saw his deteriorated body.

Nelson fell in love with Emma Hamilton, the young wife of the elderly British ambassador to Naples. Nelson created a scandal when she became his mistress, living openly with him in England. The couple had a daughter, Horatia. It is thought that Sir William Hamilton tolerated the affair.

1799 – Nelson was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Red, the seventh highest rank in the Royal Navy. He assisted Admiral Ushakov with the reconquest of Naples, and was made Duke of Bronte by the Neapolitan king.

He was recalled to England. But as his personal scandal became known to more and more people, Admiralty sent him back to sea (if only to get him away from Ms. Hamilton).

1801 – he was promoted to Vice Admiral of the Blue (the sixth highest rank).

1801 (April 2) – during the Battle of Copenhagen, he ignored the order of his commander Sir Hyde Parker to cease the battle because of the supposed effectiveness of the Danish fire and kept on fighting.

1801 (May) – his actions were approved and he became commander-in-chief in the Baltic Sea, and was awarded the title of Viscount Nelson by the British crown.

Nelson put in charge of defending the English Channel from a possible French invasion.

1801 (October 22) – an armistice between the British and the French; Nelson stayed with friends, Sir William and Lady Hamilton. The three even went on a tour of England and Wales.

1803 – peace did not last long and Nelson was once again commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean; his ship was the HMS Victory at the blockade of Toulon, France.

1803 (April 23) – Nelson promoted to Vice Admiral of the White (the fifth highest rank).

1803 – Sir William Hamilton died. Now Nelson and Lady Hamilton could live together openly.

1805 – the French fleet slipped out of Toulon.

1805 (September 13) – he faced the united French and Spanish fleets in the harbour of Cαdiz, Spain.

1805 (October 19) – the 33 vessels of the French and Spanish fleet left Cαdiz. Admiral Nelson with his 27 ships met the enemy fleet.

1805 (October 21) – the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson’s ship Victory, crippled the French flagship Bucentaure and then went after the Redoutable. When the two ships entangled, a sniper was able to hit Admiral Nelson. A bullet entered his shoulder, went through his lung, and was stopped at the base of his spine. Nelson died soon after the battle was concluded. The British won a major victory.

1815 – Lady Hamilton died of alcoholism in Calais.


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