Trip to New Mexico Spring 2018

Day 1. April 13, 2018. Friday.

Denver to Walsenburg, Colorado.

Got up early in New York to drive to Newark Airport in New Jersey for our trip out west.

The trip was uneventful. But it was really cold in Colorado, which gave us a nasty cold body shock. Not nice. It was snowing.

We rented a KIA car from Hertz that served our needs very well. The odometer read 24,937 miles.

We couldn’t many take many notes because my right hand was shaking so hard that I could hardly write. Rosemary had to take more pictures of information signs to replace my usual trail notes.

Rosemary only took one set of pictures in the first day at a scenic stop along I-25 at Colorado Springs. A fully deployed orange wind sock attested to the strength of the wind.

We stayed at the Best Western Inn Plus in Walsenburg, Colorado off I-25. We ate at a local Mexican-American restaurant in the small town. I didn’t like the food, but Rosemary did like hers.

Day 2. April 14, 2018. Saturday.

Walsenburg, Colorado to Taos, New Mexico.

Initial Odometer reading: 25,114.

Got up early again, headed for Taos. Rosemary decided to take a jaunt around two mountains known as the Spanish Twin Peaks.

The Spanish Peaks, 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Walsenburg are a national landmark and have been named one of Colorado's Seven Wonders.

Raton Pass. Ratón Pass is a 7,834 ft (2,388 m) elevation mountain pass on the Colorado-New Mexico border in the western United States. Ratón is Spanish for "mouse." It is located on the eastern side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains between Trinidad, Colorado and Raton, New Mexico, approximately 100 miles (160 km) northeast of Santa Fe. The pass crosses the line of volcanic mesas that extends east from the Sangre de Cristo Mountains along the state line and furnishes the most direct land route between the valley of the Arkansas River to the north and the upper valley of the Canadian River, leading to Santa Fe, to the south. The pass now carries Interstate 25 and railroad tracks.

The pass is a historically significant landmark on the Santa Fe Trail, a major 19th-century settlement route between Kansas City, Missouri and Santa Fe. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960 for this association

It didn’t take long to be in New Mexico. We quickly got to the town of Raton. We took the northern route to get to see the Capulin Volcanic National Monument east of Raton from I-25 on Route 72. We got about nine miles east before we had to turn the car around because of the sliding of car in snow on the road way. The winds were very fierce. We knew we would be back in Raton on our way back to Denver.

We took some beautiful pictures before having to turn the car around.

On Rt-64 south Rosemary took a picture of an historic marker dealing with the Santa Fe Trail.

The next historic marker introduced the Cimarron Canyon State Park. An accompanying historic marker talks about the “Paliside Slide”, which is a massive rock wall alongside the Cimarron River.

We now go to Eagle Lake to take pictures of the lake. The area is wide and open and beautiful.

From the lake we take a short drive to the town’s Visitor Center-Museum-Trading Post. There I play with the one-eyed, small, dog while Rosemary shops for jewelry and other gifts.

From there we went to Taos and found our hotel – World Mark. We ate at Kachina.

Driving Around Spanish Peaks

Driving to Taos


Day 3. April 15, 2018. Sunday.


Odometer reading: 24,973.

Got up early for breakfast which is across the street at Michaels Kitchen where they are reputed to have a good breakfast.

After breakfast we took pictures up and down the street.

Next we parked our car right on Kit Carson Street a little up and across from the Kit Carson Home and Museum.

Kit Carson was born in Richmond, Kentucky circa 1809. He was the fifth of 11 children.

The family moved to Boone’s Lick, Missouri, when Kit was one year old in 1810. The Boones became relatives through intermarriage.

Kit’s father died when Kit was just eight years old and Kit didn’t get along with his stepfather. As a teenager, Kit moved to Franklin, Missouri to apprentice himself as a saddle maker.

Kit didn’t like the work, so in 1826 he followed the Santa Fe Trail and settled in the town of Santa Fe.

From1827 and 1829, Carson worked as cook, translator, copper miner and wagon driver in the southwest.

From 1829 and 1841 Carson worked as a mountain man. He also was an Indian fighter.

Expedition leader with John Charles Frémont (1842–1848).

1846, Frémont and Carson both participated in a California uprising against Mexico called the Bear Flag Revolt.

· Mexican–American War (1846–1848)

· Military career (1861–1868)

· Campaign against the Apaches

· Campaign against the Navajo

· Canyon de Chelly

· First Battle of Adobe Walls

After taking pictures from across the street of the museum, we crossed-over to the side to get closeups of the street pictures. Then we went around the corner to pictures to the Courtyard, that used to be much larger when Kit was alive. There are other sets of buildings around the Courtyard that did not belong to the Carsons.

Our Guide Angela Esquibel showed us around the three original rooms of the Home. She was very helpful.

We now walked down to the Historic Taos Plaza, which is a good place to shop. We watched some natives dancing. Rosemary took pictures of the dancers and of their children.

The next destination was to the town cemetery where we found the graves of Kit and Josefea Carson. Josefea was Carson’s third wife who died in 1868. Kit died one month later at age 58. Their graves are found at the northwest end of the cemetery.

Our next stop was at the Governor George Bent House and Museum (117 Bent Street). The Bent family was a very famous pioneer family, especially in Colorado and New Mexico.

During the Mexican-American War in 1847, Hispano/New Mexican and Puebloan allies rose up in revolt against the Americans. The Americans put the revolt down. An incident occurred in the Taos house of Governor George Bent where the rebels killed the first New Mexican governor. Many visitors are disappointed with the collections in the house, but I was happy enough to see where the first New Mexican Governor gave his life for his country.

Kit Carson Park and Historic Cemetery is located 1 ½ blocks north of Taos Plaza at 211 Paseo Del Pueblo Norte. This 19 acre park features a ¾ mile walking and jogging track around the perimeter. The park provides multipurpose courts for tennis and basketball as well as three baseball fields. There are large open fields suitable for soccer, frisbee and just relaxing. Kit Carson Park also has a playground for children ages 2–12. There are ample picnic and barbecue areas throughout the park.

Kit Carson Cemetery is over 150 years old and is the final resting place of Kit Carson, Padre Martinez and other prominent Taoseños. The cemetery and park are both ADA accessible.

Amenities include a walking/jogging trail, two fields for soccer practice, two little league ball fields, one t-ball field, one picnic shelter, a bandstand, several picnic areas, basketball court, and a tennis court.

Our last stop for the day was at the of home of the patron of arts, Mabel Dodge Luhan. In 1917 she began a literary colony in Taos.

Among the artists and poets who visited here were Marsden Hartley, Arnold Ronnebeck, Louise Emerson Ronnebeck, Ansel Adams, Willa Cather, Walter Van Tilburg Clark, Robinson Jeffers and his wife Una, Florence McClung, Georgia O'Keeffe, Mary Hunter Austin, Mary Foote, Frank Waters, Jaime de Angulo, Aldous Huxley, Ernie O'Malley.

Mabel died at her home in Taos in 1962 and is buried in Kit Carson Cemetery.

We didn’t see much of the other rooms because a guest at the conference house was a fellow sociologist/academician and was delighted to find us. We talked and talked and talked about everything under the sun and the time just flew by.

Michael's Kitchen

Kit Carson Home and Museum

Taos Plaza

Mabel Dodge Luhan Conference Center

Day 4. April 16, 2018. Monday.

Taos to Santa Fe via the Rio Grande.

Odometer reading: 25,358.

We are headed for Santa Fe south on Route 68.

We get on Route 82 and Route 285 around Espanola.

The scenery is pretty around the Rio Grande.

We reach Santa Fe and start looking for the Georgia O’Keefe Museum. It takes a bit of looking but we find the museum. Rosemary’s favorite painter is O’Keefe.

The museum is rather small, but still has a fine of set portaits.

From the art museum, we went to the Santa Fe

Botanical Garden at Museum Hill. Among the plants in the area:

· Muhlenbergia reverchonii ‘Autumn Embers’

· Muhly Grass Poacea

· Yucca rostrata Beaked Yuccaj Agavacae

· Agastasche rupestris Sunset Hyssop Lamiacae

· Malus x ‘Indian Magic’ Crabapple ‘Indian Magic’

· Rosaceae

· Cupressus arizonica var. glabra ‘Blue Ice’ Arizona Cypress ‘Blue Ice’ Cupressacae

· Juniperus scopulorumMoonglo ‘w’ Rocky Mountain

· Juniper ‘Moonglow’ Cupressacae

· Ephedra equisetina Blue Ephedrd Ephedracae Asia

· Quercus muehlenbergii Chinkapin Oak Fagaceae

· Pinus heldrichii Bosnian Pine Pinacae

· Cylindropuntia x viridiflora Santa Fe Cholla Cactacae

· Cylindropuntia whipplei ‘Snow Leopard’ Cholla ‘Snow Leopard’ Cactacae

· Opuntia polyacantha ‘Dark Knight’ Prickly Pear ‘Dark Knight’ Cactacae

· Yucca rostrata Beaked Yucca Agavacae

· Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa Pine Pinaceae

· Penstemon sp. Penetemon species Plantaginaceae

· Atriplex canescens Fourwings Saltbush

· Chenopodiacae

· Artemisia tridentata Big Sagebush Asteraceae

· Ericameria nauseosa Chamisa Asteraceae

· Acer saccharum subsp. gradidentatum Bigtooth maple Sapindacae

· Forestiera pubescens New Mexico privet Oleacae

· Quercus gambelii Gamble Oak Fagaceae

· Agastache cana Hummingbird mint Lamiacae

· Salvia pachyphylla Mojave sage Lamiacae

· Rosa rubiginosa Sweetbriar Rose Rosacae

Views of Rio Grande

O'Keefe Museum

Botanical Gardens in Santa Fe

Day 5. April 17, 2018. Tuesday.

Odometer reading: 25,546.

We drive from our hotel going northeast to go past Santa Fe and get to Glorieta Pass, the sight of a Civil War battle on March 26 to 28, 1862, at Pigeon’s Ranch, between a Union force under

Col. Edward Canby and a Confederate force under Brig. Gen. Henry Hopkins Sibley. The number killed was equal at 46. The Union troops destroyed the Confederate supply train forcing the Confederates back to Texas never to return.

Then we went over to the Pecos National Historical Park in the town of Pecos. There is a Visitor Center you can browse around in.

In addition, we went back up to the center of town. We drove up Rt. 63 north to enjoy the Pecos River in a slim gorge. We took lots of pictures before turning the car around.

Glorieta Pass Battlefield

The Battle of Glorieta Pass was fought March 26–28, 1862 in the mountain pass west of Pecos Pueblo, along the route of the Old Santa Fe Trail. Confederate forces were en route to take Union-controlled Fort Union, and were fought to a standoff by militia raised in the Colorado Territory. Although parts of the battlefield have been compromised by highway construction, two sections of the battlefield have been preserved by the Park Service on either side of the pass. Access to these units is limited; requests should be made at the main unit visitor's center.

The Glorieta Pass Battlefield was the site of an American Civil War battle that ended Confederate ambitions to cut off the West from the Union. The Battle of Glorieta Pass took place on March 26–28, 1862, at Glorieta Pass, on the Santa Fe Trail between the Pecos River and Santa Fe, New Mexico. The pass, and the battlefield, are now bisected by Interstate 25. Two portions of the battlefield, now owned by the National Park Service and operated as part of Pecos National Historical Park, were declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961

The preserved portions of the battlefield consist of two sites, a 294-acre (1.19 km2) parcel on the west side of Glorieta Pass, and a 150-acre (0.61 km2) parcel on the east side. Areas in between and other portions of the battlefield have been at least partially compromised by the construction of both a railroad and Interstate 25. The eastern portion is north of I-25, and is roughly bisected by New Mexico State Road 50, which follows the historic route of the Santa Fe Trail. At its eastern end is Pigeon's Ranch, a historic stop on the trail, of which only foundation remnants survive. The western section is located mainly between I-25 and the railroad tracks near the hamlet of Cañoncito.

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought March 26-28, 1862, arose out of a Confederate initiative to gain control of the western United States. Confederate forces under Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley had penetrated as far as Santa Fe, defeating a Union force under Col. Edward Canby at Valverde in February 1862. William Gilpin, governor of the Colorado Territory, raised a brigade of volunteers to aid in the defense of Fort Union, the next Confederate objective. These two forces fought a largely indecisive battle, with the Union forces forced to retreat northward, but successfully destroying the Confederate supply train. The latter forced a Confederate retreat, ultimately all the way back to Texas.[

Administrative history

Pecos Pueblo and an area of 341 acres (138 ha) was acquired by the state and preserved as a state monument in 1935. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson established Pecos National Monument over the same area, and control was turned over the Park Service. In 1990 the main unit of the park was expanded to more than 6,000 acres (24 km2), including a large area of ranchland and archaeologically sensitive landscapes. The two units of the Glorieta Pass Battlefield were formally added to the park in 1993.

Pecos National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in San Miguel and Santa Fe Counties, New Mexico. The park, operated by the National Park Service, encompasses thousands of acres of landscape infused with historical elements from prehistoric archaeological ruins to 19th-century ranches, to a battlefield of the American Civil War. Its largest single feature is Pecos Pueblo, a Native American community abandoned in historic times. First a state monument in 1935, it was made Pecos National Monument in 1965, and greatly enlarged and renamed in 1990. Two sites within the park, the pueblo and the Glorieta Pass Battlefield, are National Historic Landmarks.

Pecos National Historical Park's main unit is located in western San Miguel County, about 17 miles (27 km) east of Santa Fe and just south of Pecos.

Forked Lightning Ranch

Another part of the park is the Forked Lightning Ranch, a cattle ranch established in the 1920s by Tex Austin, a famous producer of rodeos. It was headquartered at the Kozlowski's Stage Stop and Tavern, a stagecoach stop on the Santa Fe Trail that had also served as a Union forces encampment before the Battle of Glorieta Pass. It was only a cattle ranch for a time before Austin converted it into a dude ranch which he promoted to Easterners. The main ranch was designed by John Gaw Meem in the Pueblo Revival style. Austin's heavily mortgaged endeavour failed, closing in 1933. In 1936 the ranch again became a working cattle ranch, and in 1941 it was purchased by Buddy Fogelson, a Texas oilman who married actress Greer Garson. After her husband died, Garson sold her share of the park in 1991 to a conservation group, which donated it to the Park Service

Glorietta Pass Battle

Santa Fe National Forest

Day 6. April 18, 2018. Wednesday.

Driving on Route 475, we took a photo of an historic marker near another marker sending vehicles up a road that ends at a big ski lift. But first you will run into Hyde Memorial State Park. It covers 350 acres of land up in the Santo de Cristo Mountains.

A short drive to brings you to the Aspen Vista Picnic Ground.

Vista Grande Overlook.

Welcome to Ski Santa Fe!

Santa Fe Downtown Slice

East from the O’Keefe Art Museum, there is a very cute display of stone fish set in a sea of small rocks and swimming across the rock sea.

Close by is a Medal of Honor statute to honor SFC Leroy A. Petry. City of Santa Fe City Hall.

New Mexico History Museum. A fine history portrait

1550–1626 Juan de Oñate

1598 Battle on the Mesa 800 Native Americans killed

1610 Palace of the Governors built

1680 Pueblo Revolt

1692 The Spanish Return

1779 Governor Juan Bautista de Anza defeats the Comanche

1821 Mexican Revolution

1821-1880 the Santa Fe Trail from Missouri to Santa Fe

1826 16-year old man Kit Carson settles in Taos

1846 Col. Stephen Watts Kearny takes over Santa Fe without a shot during the Mexican - American War.

1862 Gen. James Carleton attacks the Navajo and Apache

1862 Battle of Glorieta Pass drives out the Confederates from New Mexico iN the Civil War

1863 The Long Walk: A 350 mile forced walk of the Navajo and Apache east to Bosque Redondo and

Fort Sumner (3,000 Navajo died on the walk)

1881 Billy the Kid is killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett at Fort Sumner

1886 Geronimo surrenders

1917 Mabel Dodge, her husband, and Elsie Clews Parsons moved to Taos, New Mexico, where she began a literary colony.

Route 475 to Santa Fe Ski Area

New Mexico History Museum

Day 7. April 19, 2018. Friday.

Santa Fe to Albuquerque.

Rt 25 southwest. Exit 284

Rt. 25 southwest. Exit 288

Rt 25 southwest. Exit 278 Rt 14

Rt 25 southwest. Exit 276 Rt 14

Santa Fe Downs.

La Cienega. Exit 271.

Waldo Canyon. Exit 267, on left

Rt 16 Exit 264 Santa Fe River

Rt 22 Exit 259

Exit 257 Mormon Battalion Monument. The Mormon Battalion was a religiously based American military unit which served from July 1846 – July 1847 during the Mexican–American War of 1846–1848. It was a volunteer unit composed of Mormon troops. The men were engaged in the California Long March (1846–1847) and the Capture of Tucson (1846).

Exit 252 San Felipe Hollywood

Near Exit 248 Jemez River

Exit Rt 550 on right & left for Rt 165

Exit 248 for Bernalillo

Exit 234 for Rt 556

US 40 west for Albuquerque.

Albuquerque has a botanical and zoological complex called the Albuquerque Biological Park, consisting of the Rio Grande Botanic Garden, Albuquerque Aquarium, Tingley Beach, and the Rio Grande Zoo

Botanic Garden (in Albuquerque).

· Potentilla Potentilla fruticosa Rosaceae

· Purple Iris

· Scot’s Broom

· Red Bud

· Atlas Ceder

· Smoke tree Cotinus coggygria Ancardiaceae

· Maple Tree

· Oregon Grape

· Paper Birch

· Populus x acuminata Mountain cottonwood

· Alnus incana Gray Alders

· Centranthus ruber Red Valerian

· Nolina microcarpa Littlefruit Beargrass

· Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea Mexican Elder

· Claret Cups

· Texas redbud

· Christmas Cholla

· Compass Barrel Cactus

· Rhus ovata Sugar Bush Anacardiacea

· Desert Agave

· Quercus fusiformis Escarpment Live Oak Fagacea

· Mahonia haematocarpa Algarita, Red Berry Mahonia Berberidaceae

· Berlandiera lyrata Chocolate Flower Asteraceae

· Quercus hypoleucoides Silver-leaf Oak Fagaceae

· Columbine

· Texas Madrone

· Juniperus deppeana Aligator Juniper, Cedron Cupressaceae

· Chilopsis linearis Desert Willow, Mimbre Bignoniaceae

· Prunus pumilis Western Sand Cherry Rosaceae

· Chrysothamnus nauseosus var. latisquameus

· Gray Rubber Rabbitbrush Aceraceae

· Rhus aromatica ‘Grow Low’ Grow-Low Sumac

· Anacardiaceae

Albuquerque Botanical Garden I

Albuquerque Botanical Garden II


Day 8. April 20, 2018. Friday.

Route 66 in southern Albuquerque

Took pictures of tall and decorative Rt. 66 signs on both sides of 98th street and historic looking buildings.

· Enchantment Homes.

· Grandview Motel.

· French Quarter Motel.

· New Mexican Family Restaurant (Served Any Time)

· Café 66 Route 66.

· Large sign for Unser Blvd.

· Westward Ho! Motel.

· Adobe Manor Motel.

· Western View Steak House Coffee. We stopped here for breakfast. Good food.

· Rt. 66 sign spans 64th Street.

· ART sign over Coors sign.

· Big Rt. 66 sign on the side of a building.

· Happy Days Barber Shop/Gilbert Padilla

· Small Rt. 66 sign.

· More small Rt. 66 signs.

Views Along Route 66


Day 9. April 21, 2018. Saturday.

Fort Sumner, Bosque Redondo and Billy the Kid

Directions From Albuquerque to Fort Sumner .Take US 40 east Santa Rosa then take Rt 84 southeast to Rt 60 and Fort Sumner, pass by Billy the Kid Museum on the right, take a right onto Rt 272, 159 miles one way.

Fort Sumner was authorized to be built on October 31, 1862 in order to protect settlers in Pecos River Valley from attacks from the Mescalero Apache, Kiowa, and Comanche. The first commander of the fort was General James Henry Carleton. Carleton was soon replaced by General Edward Canby.

The Navajo were not resettled in large numbers until early 1864. The long relocation ended with 3,000 dead Navajo.

In April 1865 there were about 8,500 Navajo and 500 Mescalero Apache interned at Bosque Redondo.

In 1867 the harvest was a total failure

The Navajo were not allowed to leave until May 1868 when the U.S. Army agreed that Fort Sumner and the Bosque Redondo reservation was a failure.

Fort Sumner was abandoned in 1869.

On July 14, 1881, Sheriff Pat Garrett shot and killed Billy the Kid in this house, now referred to as the Maxwell House.

In 1968, Fort Sumner was declared a New Mexico State Monument.

Bosque Redondo I

Bosque Redondo II


Day 10. April 22, 2018 Sunday

Elephant Butte Reservoir and Fort Craig

Elephant Butte Reservoir is a reservoir on the Rio Grande in the U.S. state of New Mexico and the largest in New Mexico by total surface area. It is impounded by Elephant Butte Dam and is the largest reservoir in New Mexico by peak volume. The reservoir is also part of the largest state park in New Mexico, Elephant Butte Lake State Park.

The reservoir is part of the Rio Grande Project, a project to provide power and irrigation to south-central New Mexico and west Texas. It was filled starting between 1915 and 1916. The name "Elephant Butte" refers to a volcanic core similar to Devils Tower in Wyoming. It is now an island in the lake. The butte was said to have the shape of an elephant lying on its side.

In 2014 a bachelor party stumbled across a stylomastoid skull in excellent condition just below the surface of the sand at Elephant Butte Reservoir. The skull is on display at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

Elephant Butte Dam, constructed between 1911 and 1916, with the reservoir fill started in 1915, was a major engineering feat in its day.

Fort Craig

Fort Craig was a U.S. Army fort located along El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, near Elephant Butte Lake State Park and the Rio Grande in Socorro County, New Mexico.

The Fort Craig site was approximately 1,050 feet east-west by 600 feet north-south (320 by 180 m) and was located on 40 acres (16 hectares).

The Battle of Valverde, or the Battle of Valverde Ford from February 20 to February 21, 1862, was fought near the town of Valverde at a ford of Valverde Creek in Confederate Arizona, in what is today the state of New Mexico. It was a major Confederate success in the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War. The belligerents were Confederate cavalry from Texas and several companies of Arizona militia versus U.S. Army regulars and Union volunteers from northern New Mexico and the Colorado Territory.

Elephant Butte State Park

Fort Craig

Day 11. April 23, 2018.

Looking for Mt. Taylor, Fort Wingate, Fort Defiance.

Mount Taylor

Mount Taylor (Navajo: Tsoodzi_) is a stratovolcano in northwest New Mexico, northeast of the town of Grants. It is the high point of the San Mateo Mountains and the highest point in the Cibola National Forest. It was named in 1849 for then president Zachary Taylor. Prior to that, it was called Cebolleta (tender onion) by the Spanish; the name persists as one name for the northern portion of the San Mateo Mountains, a large mesa. Mount Taylor is largely forested, rising like a blue cone above the desert below. Its slopes were an important source of lumber for neighboring pueblos.

Mount Taylor is the cone in a larger volcanic field, including Mesa Chivato. The Mount Taylor volcanic field is composed primarily of basalt (with 80% by volume) and straddles the extensional transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift. The largest volcanic plug in the volcanic field is Cabezon Peak, which rises nearly 2,000 feet above the surrounding plain. According to Robert Julyan’s The Place Names of New Mexico, the Navajos identify Cabezon Peak “as the head of a giant killed by the Twin War Gods” with the lava flow to the south of Grants believed to be the congealed blood of the giant.

To the Navajo people, Mount Taylor is Tsoodzi_, the blue bead mountain, one of the four sacred mountains marking the cardinal directions and the boundaries of the Dinetah, the traditional Navajo homeland. Mount Taylor marks the southern boundary, and is associated with the direction south and the color blue; it is gendered female. In Navajo mythology, First Man created the sacred mountains from soil from the Fourth World, together with sacred matter, as replicas of mountains from that world. He fastened Mount Taylor to the earth with a stone knife. The supernatural beings Black God, Turquoise Boy, and Turquoise Girl are said to reside on the mountain. Mount Taylor is also sacred to the Acoma, Hopi, Laguna and Zuni people.

Mount Taylor is very rich in a uranium-vanadium bearing mineral, and was mined extensively for it from 1979 to 1990. The Mount Taylor and the hundreds of other uranium mines on Pueblo lands have provided over thirteen million tons of uranium ore to the United States since 1945.

Concern has arisen regarding the impact of future mining activities on the site. In June 2008 the New Mexico Cultural Properties Review Committee voted in favor of a one-year emergency listing of more than 422,000 acres (171,000 ha) surrounding the mountain’s summit on the state Register of Cultural Properties. "The Navajo Nation, the Acoma, Laguna and Zuni pueblos, and the Hopi tribe of Arizona asked the state to approve the listing for a mountain they consider sacred to protect it from an anticipated uranium mining boom, according to the nomination report." In April 2009, Mount Taylor was added to the National Trust for Historic Preservation's list of America's Most Endangered Places.

Fort Wingate is near Gallup, New Mexico. There were two other locations in New Mexico which were called Fort Wingate: Seboyeta, New Mexico (1849-1862) and San Rafael, New Mexico (1862-1868). The most recent Fort Wingate (1868-1993) was established at the former site of Fort Lyon, on Navajo territory, initially to control and "protect" the large Navajo tribe to its north. The Fort at San Rafael was the staging point for the Navajo deportation known as the Navajo's Long Walk. From 1870 onward the garrison near Gallup was concerned with Apaches to the south, and through 1890 hundreds of Navajo Scouts were enlisted at the fort.

Fort Wingate supplied 100 tons of Composition B high explosives to the Manhattan Project for use in the first Trinity test and became an ammunition depot "Fort Wingate Depot Activity" from World War II until BRAC closed it in 1993. Environmental cleanup of UXO, perchlorate and lead as well as land transfer continue to the present day

Ojo del Oso, literally "Eye of the Bear", meaning Bear springs) was a Navajo place visited for good grazing and water.

19th century

1849 A hay camp was set up near Seboyeta, New Mexico and was called Fort Wingate. It was named for Major Benjamin Wingate, 5th U.S. Infantry, who died on 1 June 1862 from wounds he received during the Battle of Valverde.

1860 Fort Fauntleroy was established at Bear Springs (Ojo del Oso) as an outpost of Fort Defiance. General Thomas T. Fauntleroy named the fort for himself.

1861 Fort Fauntleroy was renamed Fort Lyon for Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, a Unionist, when Fauntleroy left New Mexico to join the Confederacy. Fort Lyon was closed on 10 September 1861 at the start of the Civil War

1862 Fort Wingate was moved near a large spring at San Rafael, New Mexico, also known as "Bikyaya" or "El Gallo"(the rooster). It was designed to house four companies of troops.

1864 Edward Canby ordered Colonel Kit Carson to bring four companies of the First New Mexico Volunteers to the fort to "control" the Navajo

1864-1866 It was the staging point for the Navajo deportation known as the Long Walk of the Navajo.

1865 the New Mexico Military District had 3,089 troops, 135 of them at Fort Wingate.

1868 Fort Wingate was moved back to the former site of Fort Lyon at Ojo del Oso.

1873 - 1886 The fort´s troops participated in Apache Wars with troops and recruited Navajo Scouts.

1878 Fort Wingate had 137 troops.

1868-1895 Fort Wingate troops often settled disagreements between Navajo and "citizens" in New Mexico.

1891 Fort Wingate troops assisted Arizona units against angry Hopis.

20th century

1907 Two troops of the 5th Cavalry went from Fort Wingate to the Four Corners area after some armed Navajo. This was the last armed expedition the US Government made against the Navajo. One Navajo was killed and the rest escaped.

1911 A Ft. Wingate company of cavalry went to Chaco Canyon and camped there several days to quell a possible uprising by Navajo.

1914 during the Mexican Civil War over 2,000 Mexican soldiers and their families took refuge at the fort.

1918 Fort Wingate focus turned from Navajo to World War I.

1940 Fort Wingate became an ammunition depot from World War II until 1993.

1944 Fort Wingate supplied 100 tons of Composition B high explosives to the Manhattan Project for use in the first Trinity test.

Lt. Charles B. Gatewood (1853 –1896) led many patrols out of Wingate and later convinced Geronimo to surrender 1881-85 General Douglas MacArthur lived at the fort as an infant, with his father, a Captain in command of Company K, 13th US Infantry. 1889-90 General John J. (Black Jack) Pershing served as Lieutenant at the fort.

Looking for Forts

Day 12. April 24, 2018. Tuesday

On our second attempt to visit Capulin Volcano National Monument it was so foggy we could hardly see anything. We did visit the gift shop and took a few pictures.

In the hotel, we took some pictures of the handsome indoor courtyard.

Very Few Photos

Day 13. April 25, 2018. Wednesday

Our second attempt to visit Pike's Peak was almost perfect.  We made it as far as Glen Cove.

Our Second Attempt to Visit Pike's Peak

Day 14. April 26, 2018. Thursday

We fly home.


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